Freewill and Determinism -does Determinism Shear Free will?

Freewill and Determinism

Table of Contents


Introducing theme

Modern moods around the subject

Defining terms – Freewill and Determinism

Knowledge empowers freewill to determine a choice

How bias can skew interpretation of the text

Accounting for faulty Muslim interpretation

Categorise of determinisms

Understanding freewill in circumstantial-determinism

Freewill and its capacity to determine destiny

Believers and disbelievers will receive the difference

Explaining prohibitions-determinism

Individual outcomes aren’t predetermined

Explaining stage-determinism

Limits of human freewill

God’s determinism to test freewill

Is human freewill free from bias?

How can prophecies be explained?

Case study- On decree of God

How determinism won’t spare abrupt choices made by freewill

Checking the invented creed of Roman church

Can God’s decree be undone



Enlightenment has always been that our thoughts help us solve problems of obscure dimensions. One of its kind, this work is designed exclusively for modern readers who are best at exerting to fight-out bias. This book ushers a thought provoking modern narrative on a couple of long standing philosophical subjects. Mainly the arguments aim to discredit God’s non-existence for the findings of evil and suffering. And then progresses to reconcile freewill with determinism and appeals to Atheists, Agnostics, Students of Science and to Religious folks of Abrahamic heritage.

This work progressively argues how circumstantial-determinism and freewill are congruent. Instead of too much speculation on the mystery surrounding the subject attention is drawn to reflect on the reality of presence in which we live and exchange gains. An in-depth discussion on why humans are faced with this seemingly a riddle of freewill amidst determinism which orchestrates evil is brought to simplicity of understanding. It also proposes how the law of determinism can be effective in evaluating philosophy of various beliefs and religious creeds. Framed in multiple sections and simple explanations it adds to the comprehensibility of the subject.

The subject itself is thoroughly dealt with utilizing realism found in the Quran. Let me divulge a quick analogy before you, in that our likes & dislikes and their swapping positions in our consciousness are a good example to allude towards freewill & its realism, but a grandeur argument underpins this work to disqualify freewill in-compatibilism and thus the prevalence of evil.

I have noticed philosophical subjects of this nature are popular amongst non-religious and often religious people are brought to present their apology. Which they have best done in the last century earning the prestigious title “the apologists”. Therefore, I have exclusively highlighted traditional wrongs that did subtly slip in diluting the understanding of this very important argument among the adherents of Abrahamic faiths. My best wishes for the readers. Hope you will enjoy reading this piece of literature.


The problem of freewill and determinism?
Introducing theme

Say for instance there is a couple of items placed before you to make your choice. The assertion that the All Knowledgeable God is aware of your choice ahead of you making your mind to choose it is invalid. In the scripture, the Quran, Al Aleem meaning All Knowing is one among the many attributes of God Almighty. By this attribute, must God know your choice even before you have made it? I am saying the question is invalid, mainly because first I do not have the knowledge of it myself to justify this claim. Secondly, I have not read of any such a claim made by God Himself in the Quran. Instead the Quran time and again iterates the law of God’s knowing in the following fashion:

Quran 3:154 …God is knowing of the status of your minds.

The inference that God is not fully knowing is also incorrect. Because God knows once our freewill determines a thing. Also, God is knowing of the sub-conscious wanderings of our minds. This is clearly my learning of what God knows as told in His book. The reality of the subject is free choices emanate from freewill and known by God’s knowledge. What God knows is everything. Which to us is evident and hidden in the cosmos. The argument that God does not know my choice prior to its inception is invalid. Because no argument reserves for the non-existent things.

Another in the line argument that preordainment of all thoughts and actions is due to God’s ability of knowing. By His ability to know how every individual may think and act. And not due to Him effecting it by a cause it is answered as follows: Let us consider, God’s knowing of a future individual’s complete thoughts and actions in a script called A. Then the worth of the argument that God does not emulate it by causing it happen for that individual is unjustified because God’s knowing is 100 percent true and therefore it must necessarily be realised by that individual who will then automatically record his script B per his own choices conforming per script A. Which still stands 100 percent influenced by God since B turns out to be a copy of A because A exists prior to B being played out.

But the Quran has a different narrative in that it says-

Quran 50:16 And surely, We have created man and We know what his sub conscious (nafs) whispers to him, and We are closer to him than [his] jugular vein.

The voluntary state of our brain is the Will- Which defines our ability to be in control when in consciousness. The involuntary of our brain is responsible for regulating numerous functions necessary and can be classified as the sub-conscious mind. Which does bring in the conscious mind to respond to several needs of the sub-conscious. The Quran categorises sub conscious into stable, craving and reproaching. God is aware and knows of the sub conscious interactions with the conscious mind. As He is closer to us than the proximity of our own jugular vein. The neurons that embed the functionality of the heart which is by a jugular connection is very proximate to life and therefore consciousness. But God is even closer to our consciousness than this very connection. Thus, freewill is well within the sight of God and He knows of our mindful and unmindful thoughts as they build.

Quran 76:2-3 Indeed, We created man from a miniscule of genital mix that We may try him; and We made him hearing and seeing. Indeed, We guided him to the way, be he grateful or ungrateful (is upon him).

The argument that God knows of an individual’s choice for a certain determination prior to him having had the opportunity to use his senses of hearing and vision is not supported by the Quran. In the law of God an individual is responsible for determining good outcomes by his ability to intercept and control his sub-conscious cravings. By consciously constructing criticisms stated by the reproaching mind. Failure to which he faults. An individual who succeeds to tip down his cravings for desires by nursing valid criticisms, reaches the state of stability; which determines his successes in God’s law.

Modern moods around the subject

The dodged Muslim community who are hesitant to critical studies seem to precariously align their mind with the proposition supporting determinism of the type that human choices are predetermined. A view which in my opinion is not supported with evidences from Quran. Instead, all events surrounding human sphere are inevitable consequences of God’s decree: that is intricate and not predetermined. Which is contrived as responses to human intention and action. Similar to Vatican’s latest to acknowledge Darwinist narrative on origin of species: however, emphasis is drawn on order than on randomness via natural selection as being approved of God. As such this Western debate in its vagueness is found to conform with the now tending to be Darwinist Muslims to undermine freewill. If nature stands not deliberated by God freewill perhaps is only an idle construct. Which least concerns Darwinist’s to change their position on God. An irony that religious don’t understand. Rather it is the absence of work to propose a persuasive scientific understanding of the creation by the religious which ducks them at this compromise. As this is very clear and hence the title Apologists. Therefore, we see no one dares call an Atheist an Apologist.

Introducing determinism Darwin’s way absolves the world of its moral wrongdoing. Therefore, deliberating God as the sole perpetrator of the inevitable; such that no argument remains credible enough to accord to any traditional dos and don’ts. Or for servitude before the divine who again becomes an idle construct. Thus, building the case for freewill incompatibility. Hence-after it is convenient a way to desecrate the most intricate laws of nature to lose their prominence such as to worship God. Which is to live in modesty via abiding by truth, morals and Justice.

Defining terms – Freewill and Determinism

In my opinion freewill is the discerning ability to intend and act regardless of the influence from external sources. In the dictionary wordweb online freewill is defined as, the power of making free choices unconstrained by external agencies. To clarify my position. I’m arguing that freewill must be the ability to discern a choice, when facing a set of constrains. The choice could be that one could discard his initial construction of thoughts by Will. Like, to say the idea is now deflected off my mind. I won’t chase it. By we possessing such ability what entails therefore is freewill is a reality. In other words, freewill is the ability to discern the course of one’s thought and action in a domain of circumstantial-determinism. I will refurbish sufficient arguments through-out to show circumstantial-determinism does not curtail freewill.

Circumstantial-determinism or determinism is the context that is found around us that stipulates limits to exercising freewill. To explain the point, determinism is a timed function which yields an outcome for what it constitutes. Wordweb online defines determinism as- A philosophical theory holding that all events are inevitable consequences of antecedent sufficient causes- often understood as denying the possibility of freewill.

Determinism is in fact a consequential phenomenon at the onset of a chain of events. Such as rain at the onset of the water-cycle. Winds that transport clouds speedily and fecundate them eventually transform the gaseous state of clouds into liquid pouring down. By supplying the cloud-condensation nuclei as water vapour requires non-gaseous surface to condense around. Which eventually result in droplets of rainwater for us.

Quran 24:43 Don’t you reflect that God makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? …

Quran 15:22 …God sends the fecundating winds causing rain to descend from the sky …  (info 14 centuries ago- A Quran miracle!)

God has the natural phenomenon happening. Per His decree. And God is able to intercept it.

For example- After suburbs of Noah’s people were submerged none except the believers survived. Later, God commanded the waters to abate as versed below.

Quran 11:44 … O’ Earth, soak thy water and O sky, withhold [your rain].

On weather and its irregularities: Chaotic-determinism is merely our inability to fully comprehend the work of nature by God. Who remains the primary behind all natural wonders. Our near perfect weather models do make good forecasts. But we fall-short of proper assessments and often feel surprised. The varied natural phenomenon from seasons to severe weather bear signs of God’s power over His artistry. All forces of heavens and earth work to follow God’s determinism. Quran informs on the decree of God- They are planned a year ahead and come as responses to peoples thought and actions.

Knowledge empowers freewill to determine a choice

Let us consider another example closely interacting with human freewill such as behavioural-determinism. In every society trespassers are convicted for violation; which determines and conditions the behaviour of individuals to a set of morals governing in the form of behavioural-determinism accorded per societal norms.

Fundamentally, behavioural-determinism is embedded deeply in biological-determinism. Which determines human behaviour and expression. Which again is determined by environmental-determinism that sets patterns and standards unique to a society and specific to upbringing. Such, ushered complexity is extremely deterministic unless it is controlled by arts of understanding, knowledge and training. To exemplify progressive life as opposed to any bias of a society. Biological-determinism follows a law that is essentially determinate in which anatomical-determinism has a salient effect. But this law is volatile that its traits can be altered again through knowledge such as surgeries and via gene-engineering. Perhaps, this volatility is also governed by laws implicit within the genes. This volatility is only tamable up to the biological-determinate factor, which is death; as a freewill-detrimental factor. Therefore, knowledge underpins as the principal constituent in exercising freewill against determinism.

The knowledge of God, sincerity to Him, obedience of Him and repentance to Him frees the receptors of freewill from determinism to enjoy life after death.

Quran 56:60 We (God) have decreed death amongst you, and We are not to be frustrated.

The Arabic word sabaqha means outdoing or frustrating as in a defeat. Used in the above verse- Is indicative of enforcing determinism. Adam’s life in the garden of Eden prior to his determinism of death in earth is evidence of eternal-life. Where, the dwellers shall live as young and ever. Which is achievable for a known outcome in the awaited logical-determinism. A test presented by God to every receptor of freewill.

Quran 57:3 He (God) is the First and the Last, the Ascendant and the Intimate, and He is of all things knowledgeable.

Thus, what ensues is determinism is a complementary facet of freewill. The fundamental question that arises is- Does determinism comprise freewill? Or the vice-versa is true. In reasoning an answer to this problem Quran informs determinism as- The result of freewill. Which means that freewill antecedes determinism. This explains God’s first position that He has always existed. That He wasn’t determined by an anteceding cause.

Quran 85:13-16 Indeed, He (God) who originates [creation] and repeats it. And He is the forgiving most affectionate. Owner of the honorable Throne. Effecter of what He intends.

The Arabic word irada means the inception of a desire. The above verses by the use of this word emphasises determinism as a product of the domain- Freewill.

How bias can skew interpretation of the text

Quran 54:49 Indeed, everything We (God) have created with measure.

Quran 77:22-23 -For a known extent. As We determined [it], and excellent [are We] to determine.

The verse from chapter 77 is in the context of creation of mankind.

Qadar in Arabic means measure. In later Islamic tradition it has been interpreted as predestination or preordainment. One among the many borrowed and ill-conjectured concepts not found in the Quran. Primarily, I suspect due to the Judeo-Christian influence upon traditional Islam that came about mainly because of the highly compressed dynamic-phase; that first Muslims spent through- Applying themselves to adjudicating outstanding state-matters. Having had little time to discuss philosophy embedded in Quran they weren’t even aware of vain-influences making their way into Islam by communities of Judeo-Christian converts. Who offloaded their suitcases from earlier learning and innovations.

Hadees literature was easily used to intercept and dilute Quranic philosophy. While Quran after its phase of revelation stood determined and protected.

Quran 15:9 We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it [from corruption].

Oneness of the Quranic text is a conclusive manifestation foretold in the above verse. Despite the bloody fights- Amongst the earliest splits of Sunni and Shia. And despite the tens of sects amongst Muslims today; some very bitter to each other. The text essentially remains undisputed.

Accounting for faulty Muslim interpretation

The concept of predestination that goers to heaven and hell are predestined for it- Prior to their performance, found its way into Islam through the Hadees literature. Often, the below verses in the Quran are forcefully interpreted to support the argument that an omniscient creator predetermines destiny such as predestination. That He has fixed all events and outcomes in the universe in advance and therefore individual choices aren’t freely sought.

Quran 81:25-29 …the Qur’an is not the word of Shaituan (Satan or devil), expelled [from the high constituency]. So, where are you going? It is not except a reminder to the worlds. For whoever wills among you let him take this right path. And not as you will but as God wills- Lord of the worlds.

The Arabic word shaā means Will or Wish. Arguing the polytheists in Makkah offered infamous deals to Prophet Muhammad to cease his operations. Causing revelations of this type to be revealed. Reminding that Quran, is from God. So, where do you wander? There is no course for you expect that you must wish as God wills or wishes.

Here is another citation: Where the exact context is found repeated. On both occasions the revelations were directed to the Makkan polytheists. Which clarifies the arguments were for accepting the Quranic message in its entirety. Unlike the Madinah period where Quran was embraced for its every word.

Quran 76:29-31 Indeed, these [disbelievers] love the immediate (materialism) and leave behind a grave Day. We (God) have created them and made their joints strong and when We will, We can substitute the likes of them with [complete] substitution.

Indeed, this is a reminder, so he who wills may take to his Lord this way.

And not as you will but as God wills. Clearly, God is Knowledgeable and Wise.

He admits whom He wills into His mercy but for the wrongdoers – He has prepared for them a painful punishment.

Predestination- Implying that we cannot will or wish except that God has already willed it for us is nowhere found in the Quran. The above citations clarify that God’s will (commands in His book, Quran) must be our will and desire.

Traditional Muslim societies did exert great effort to ward off innovations that were channelling their way into becoming Muslim thought. But alas! That’s how little they could do while others made drastic efforts to canonise narrations and stories surrounding the Prophet. As a result, Hadees-literature emerged as the informal literature subject to scrutiny of the Quran. And later it became strongly promoted to be considered infallible by many schools of thought. Clearly, those who uphold its infallibility will be questioned for their onus of it. For there is no second to the Quran as an infallible!

Many companions of the Prophet especially Umar ibn Al Khattab foresaw the danger associated in committing to such transfer of narrations invoking Prophet over it. At this rise in vulnerability to trace its authenticity he expressed great concern and therefore, he reprimanded many others of it. Stating: that the attention of Muslims will be diverted from Quran in this zest. Efforts of this kind were pinnacle to Islam, which further strengthened later Muslims to continue to scrutinise such claims for being classic.

Therefore, even though Hadees is an informal source of knowing the life of the Prophet. It is important to correlate Hadees information with the Quran prior to its propagation as being from God and his Prophet. For the Prophet was the living Quran, he couldn’t assert anything that contradicted the Quran. You’ll come across many instances in the Quran where God showed the corrected way to the Prophet. It is all laid bare and fully transparent before us in His book. If not for God the indiscriminate, who else could do it.

As it is clear now that predestination of the type argued is not instituted in the above references of the Quran. But rather it is the submission of wills requested to accord with God’s will.

Categorise of determinisms

Quran 36:38 And the sun runs [its course] as is determined for her. That is the decree of the Majestic, the Knowledgeable.

It was very unscientific of us a century earlier to consider the sun to be resting in a place- Stationed. It shows how much humanity has ignored the Quran. It is determined for sun to run courses in its orbit for as long as commanded otherwise, it is known as physical-determinism. It is determined to run its courses in an orbit but its life is deferred by another determinism Which we can call as stage-determinism.

Quran 7:54 … He draws the night as a veil over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession. He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, [all] governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!

Quran 13: 2 … He has subjected the sun and the moon [to his Law]! Each one runs its estimated term. He does regulate all affairs, explaining the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain.

The Arabic words ajal-musamma means estimated term. It is a comprehensive law of God’s decree involving aeons and nations deferred into stages. Deterministic responses from God of joy and upheaval conform to stages of evaluation for and against people’s performance on the scales of belief, truth and justice. This again is subject to extend or expedite. For clarity let me assist further understanding by the following verse.

Quran 11:103-105 Indeed in that is a sign for those who fear the punishment of the Hereafter. That is a Day for final gathering of men, and that is a Day [which will be] witnessed. And We do not delay it except for a limited term. The Day it comes no soul will speak except by the grant of His (God’s) permission. And among them will be those who opposed and the prosperous.

The Arabic words ajal-madood means limited term. It is a scalar of numbers only to its counter-part ajal-musamma which means estimated term. The final day itself is determined for its certainty of happening. It can be known as final appointed-determinism. Up to which its final occurrence is deferred into stage-determinism. Its finality of happening, if delayed is only for a period: which is subject God’s decree involving rescue and welfare of the good-performers. The most important note being that the final day itself remains predetermined or predestined or preordained for its definite occurrence subject to stage-determinism.

Quran 11:106-108 As for those who oppose [God’s path], they will be in the Fire. For them therein is [dreadful] exhaling and inhaling. Abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except what your Lord should will. Indeed, your Lord is an effecter of what He intends. And for the prosperous will reside in Paradise, abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except what your Lord should will – a bestowal uninterrupted.

Clearly verses above elucidate stage-determinism. These verses talk about the afterlife; in essence it is applicable for all planetary bodies. When the energies of the planetary bodies approach exhaustion. God can replenish them if He so wills. Otherwise, He can bring them to a demise changing their states of functional existence into other transients.

Understanding freewill in circumstantial-determinism

Quran 2:35 We (God) said: O Adam! reside with your partner in the Garden; and eat of the nutritious things therein as [where and when] you will. But approach not this tree, or you may become wrongdoers.

God honoured mankind with this exemplary nature of freewill which we are happy as joyful to have it. Imagine if God made us Angels, like robots; robots is how I think of best describing them. Who aren’t programmed but to obey and serve God on immediate command. Our position is by measure more honoured by God than if He were to make us Angels. Arguably, gift of freewill naturally tended to be tested for obedience. For the choices of truth & justice instead of the programmed compulsion. This invoked determinism of the type prohibitions which can be named as prohibitions-determinism.

The reference to the element of truth & justice means the acceptance of the creator as the only God worthy of worship. And obedience to Him, as if we were like Angels on command. But, God is abundantly forgiving to His servants from the jinn (Satan is a descent of jinn) and humans. It is clearly God’s distinct courtesy.

Quran 2:38-39 … and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from me, whosoever follows My guidance: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. But those who reject faith and belie Our Signs: they shall be companions of fire and they shall abide therein.

Adam’s wronging at his logical-determinism brought humanity to the fore. For a long-standing mission of restraining from disbelief & disobedience: who were now due through his loins. Therefore, at his slip God set out Adam from the innocence & conveniences of the garden of Eden to reproduce and strive in earth. Thus, humanity was forearmed of the great battle that life posed as a testing ground. With the token of forgiveness from God and a promise of timely guidance life for humans began on earth filled with sufferings. Therefore, a new era for the receptors of freewill: for the race of jinn and men began.

Freewill and its capacity to determine destiny

In a facet in Adam’s disobedience, let us reason what if it would be that Iblees (Satan) had obeyed God reaching a true value for his logical-determinism faced with the creation of Adam. In his excellence: what would have possibly ensued for humanity?

Logical-determinism for both member recipients of freewill i.e. the jinn and men was organised or predestined as a decisive factor. Which would yield a value true or false. All individuals of the family jinn and men are subject to respective logical-determinism to acknowledge or deny God. And to obey or discard His commands.

The obvious consequence if Iblees were to be respectful of Adam’s creation and honouring of him: ticking a true value before his logical-determinism. Then it would mean that Adam in a straight possibility be directed to begin life on earth. And therefore would undergo trials and temptations exclusive to him undeceived by Iblees’s contortions on human mind. Which means the prohibition at the garden of Eden would not have been effected for Adam.

In the wake of Iblees’s dislike of Adam and his disobedience to God while he was summoned to respect Adam’s creation: it meant that Adam be educated about Iblees’s challenge to lead humanity by his prowess into disobeying God.

Iblees’s loyalty to God was on check at the design of Adam. Thus, Iblees came to the fore of his logical-determinism. As he chose to exult before Adam determining a false value in his test. God arranged to educate Adam of Iblees; before Adam would embark his journey in which humanity be assailed by Iblees’s incitements towards evil and shameful things. As a result Adam’s logical determinism was effected. In which he learnt the knowledge of his enemy while in the garden of Eden as to how he envies our position.

Is this a circular argument? Was Adam in a way compelled to learn the whereabouts of Iblees? Were his actions predetermined? The answer is negative. Here is the clarification:

Quran 2:35 We (God) said: O Adam! reside with your partner in the Garden: and eat of the nutritious things therein as [where and when] you will…

Quran 20:117-119 So We said, O Adam, indeed this is an enemy to you and to your partner. Then let him not remove you from Paradise so you would suffer.

Indeed, it is [promised] for you not to be hungry therein or be unclothed.

And indeed, you will not be thirsty therein or be hot from the sun.

In the above verses, it clear that God did not scheme for Adam’s disobedience. But Adam stood deceived despite his Lords assurance of a good life. Adam became unmindful of his enemy despite being forewarned. In pursuit of more, Adam followed Iblees and trespassed; where stood the command of his Lord.

Quran 2:35 … But approach not this tree, or you may become wrongdoers.

At the onset of this, a new era began for the commons of jinn and men.

Quran 2:37 Then Adam received from his Lord words, and He repented. Indeed, He (God) is the accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

In case if Adam had desisted from disobeying God: sustaining a true value at his ongoing trial. It would mean that Adam would continue to reside in the garden of Eden. And Satan be still working hard on him to incite disobedience. Excepting the possibility of another trail wouldn’t have effected for both. Faraway, post what has taken place, such an everlasting life to live in the garden of Eden will now be clear from Iblees- Potentially from making any incitements. As Iblees condemned himself to Hell for aye; the faithfuls committed to righteousness will reside in the good pleasure of the Lord.

Believers and disbelievers will receive the difference

Believers and disbelievers alike do good things. It is given as part of human nature to do good. At the same time, both are prone to doing bad stuff and evil. Seldom unawares and many a times fully conscious. But, if any initiates an act of good upon himself then such an act is praised before God like his evil is decried upon. But, he will find God most forgiving with an exception discussed in prohibitions-determinism.

Quran 4:40 Surely, God won’t do injustice, [even] as much as an atom’s weight. If there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.

The argument then is: Isn’t belief irrelevant? For good can be acted regardless of belief in a God.  It is because belief is the only way for any recognition with God. If the disbelieving won’t care about God’s approval due to their inference on God’s non-existence. Then there isn’t anything for them to be worried. Even if it means that God’s displeasure will surround them despite their working goodness. Because for them God and Paradise and Hell do not exist.

Quran 4:114 No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of God – then We are going to give him a great reward.

In 6th century Arabia, the above verse drew an inference on the actions of Makkan disbelievers. Reminding them of a law that governs approval of good actions. In a frame of logical-determinism appealed for keeping sincere belief and trust in God alone. Clearly, those of us who act good, exercise patience and exert for justice are above any comparison with those who work evil and harm.

Quran 40:58 And not equal are the blind and the seeing, nor are those who believe and do righteous deeds and the evildoer. Little do you comprehend.

It is irrational to reject God. Whose presence can be detected deep within our consciousness. And whom we can consciously deduce: as the Creator cause of the cosmos. And perhaps the only giver of life and death. Just-God won’t treat believers and disbelievers the same. Prominently, what ensues is that God in his might renders the good acts of disbelievers worthless; because of their take to ignore the approval of their acts by such a God.

Explaining Prohibitions-determinism

Quran 6:151-153 Say (O Muhammad): Listen ye people, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited to you. [He commands] that you not associate anything with Him. And to parents, good treatment and do not kill your children out of poverty, We (God) will provide for you and them. And do not approach immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which God has forbidden [to be killed] except by [legal] right. This has He instructed you that you may use reason.

And do not approach the orphan’s property except in a way that is best until he reaches maturity. And give full measure and weight in justice. We do not charge any soul except [with that within] its capacity. And when you testify, be just, even if [it concerns] a near relative. And the covenant of God fulfill. This has He instructed you that you may remember.

And, [moreover], this is My path, which is straight, so follow it; and do not follow [other] ways, for you will be separated from His way. This has He instructed you that you may become righteous.

Quran 4:48 Indeed, God does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with God has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin.

God explains any form of object or a body living or dead cannot be a substitute-deity for worship. The act of doing so will clearly amount to blasphemy. Which is the only unforgivable sin. The sin of associating a partner-god tops in the list of prohibitions and is the only unforgivable. In prohibitions-determinism it is clear in verse 4:48 that God forgives other sins. Mentioned in the list in 6:151-153 expect blasphemy- Which is an enormity. That which clearly contradicts the nature of human conscience to explore.

Individual outcomes aren’t predetermined

Quran 8:23 Had God known any good in them, He would have made them hear. And if He had made them hear, they would [still] have turned away, while they were refusing.

If people are found with goodness God makes an approach.

Quran 47:32 Indeed, those who disbelieve and avert [people] from the path of God and oppose the Messenger after guidance has become clear to them – never will they harm God at all, and He will render their deeds worthless.

In determining guidance for people, God inspires or denies inspiration. Equalling for the response he receives from people. If anyone is eager to understand and then to practice righteousness God’s approach to him is determined. If otherwise when truth is refused and abused by people God denies guidance and inspiration to such.

Quran 33:19 … Those do not believe, so God will render their deeds worthless, and ever is that for God easy.

Thus, all the good practice by disbelievers will be shredded because of their refusal to seek God’s approval.

Explaining stage-determinism

Quran 7: 34 To every people is a term: when their term is reached, not an hour can they cause delay, nor [an hour] can they advance [it in anticipation].

When people are deemed to have corrupted the natural laws of truth and justice beyond the chance of recuperation or any amendment. The term is determined after which there remains no lenience to repentance neither can God’s wrath be warded off.

Quran 18:58-59 But your Lord is Most forgiving, full of Mercy. If He were to call them [at once] to account for what they have earned (of their actions), then surely He would have hastened their punishment: but they have their appointed time, beyond which they will find no refuge. Such were the populations we destroyed when they committed iniquities but we fixed an appointed time for their destruction.

Quran 23: 42-43 Then We raised after them other generations. No people can hasten their term, nor can they delay [it].

Quran 6: 47 Say (O Muhammad), Consider (O people): if the punishment of God comes to you whether suddenly or openly, will any be destroyed except those who do wrong?

Quran 7: 181-183 Of Those We (God) have created are people who direct [others] with truth. And dispense justice therewith. Those who reject Our signs, We shall gradually visit with punishment, in ways they perceive not. Respite will I grant unto them for My scheme is strong [and unfailing].

Quran 7: 165 When they disregarded the warnings that had been given, We rescued those who forbade Evil, but We visited the wrong-doers with a grievous punishment because they were given to transgression.

As it is strikingly clear, that morally degenerative acts approach their appointments with God. God does save those who pursue truth and constantly condemn evil.

In wake of God sending His messengers the term of punishments is linked to their disobedience. As it is seen repeating in the history with Jews and Muslims. Jews were overwhelmed post rejecting Christ. And Pharaoh’s hosts before Moses. And as disbelievers of Makkah were  systematically terminated due to their rejection of Prophet Muhammad first at the wells of Badar.

Quran 38: 14-15 Not one [of them] but rejected the messengers, but My punishment came justly and inevitably [on them]. These [today] only wait for a single mighty Blast, which [when it comes] will brook no delay.

If this Quran were written by Muhammad how could he knew of how a blast could destroy populations? That, type of science just did not exist! God only passed it as knowledge to us that He can cause a pressure wave to destroy wide-populations.

Quran 11:8 And if We hold back from them the punishment for a limited time, they will surely say, -What detains it? Unquestionably, on the Day it comes to them, it will not be averted from them, and they will be enveloped by what they used to ridicule.

In effect a chase launched to subdue truth will bring into effect the appointed-determinism in which destruction perhaps is the only outcome.

Quran 4:147 What Can God gain by your punishment? if you are grateful and you believe? Surely, it is God that recognises [all good], and knows all things.

Quran 8: 38 Say (O Muhammad), to the Unbelievers, if [now] they desist [from Unbelief], their past would be forgiven: but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already [a matter of warning for them].

It only takes sincere acceptance of our creator. That, He indeed is our God who gives us life and death. In which scenario God’s forgiveness will wash us clean of our past.

Limits of human freewill

Quran 5:32 … that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land – it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one – it is as if he had saved mankind entirely…

Freewill allows a man to stretch full to kill or save a life. Even if it be risking his own to rescue someone: as a symbol of courage and sacrifice. Since God equals the loss or gain of a soul to entire mankind. Hence, it is determined that such an act must meet full rebate of reward or punishment accordingly.

Quran 2:8-12 Of the people there are some who say: “We believe in God and the Last Day.” But they do not [really] believe. Fain, would they deceive God and those who believe, but they only deceive themselves, and realise [it] not. In their hearts is a disease, and God has increased their disease. And grievous is the penalty they [incur], because they are false [to themselves]. When it is said to them: “Make not mischief on the earth,” they say: “We only Want to make peace!”. Of a surety, they are the ones who make mischief, but they realise [it] not.

On the Day of sorting God will then disclose all records before us plain and open!

Quran 45:29-31 This (transcribed book) Our record, speaks about you in truth. Indeed, We (God) were having transcribed whatever you used to do.

So as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, their Lord will admit them into His mercy. Such is the clear attainment.

But as for those who disbelieved, [it will be said], Were not Our verses recited to you, but you were arrogant and became a people of criminals?

Quran teaches we must make responsible choices as none is designed evil by birth.

Able on whose account the law of life for life got scripted had to say the following…

Quran 5:27-28 And recite to them the story of Adam’s two sons in truth, when they both offered a sacrifice [to God], and it was accepted from one of them but was not accepted from the other. Said [the latter], “I will surely kill you.” Said [the former], “Indeed, God only accepts from the righteous [who fear Him].

If you should raise your hand against me to kill me – I shall not raise my hand against you to kill you. Indeed, I fear God, Lord of the worlds.

Now, what can come closer to explaining freewill?

Cain ignored Abel’s modesty and committed an atrocity. Thus, God legislated the law of life for life as a token to serve for justice between men. And yet forgiveness in an intricate part of His legislation.

Quran 2:179 In the Law of Equality for you there is [saving of] Life, O ye men of understanding that you may restrain yourselves.

It is virtue to sacrifice. Of-course though there are limits to bear oppression.

Quran 42:39 And (blameless are) those who, when oppression surrounds them, they defend themselves.

God’s determinism to test freewill

Quran 43:75-80 And We did not wrong them, but it was they who were the wrongdoers. And they will call, “O Malik (Keeper of Hell), let your Lord put an end to us!” He will say, “Indeed, you will remain.”

We had certainly brought you the truth, but most of you, to the truth, were averse.

Or have they devised [some] affair? But indeed, We (God) are devising [a plan].

Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private conversations? Yes, [We do], and Our messengers are with them recording.

In the conversation above it is clarified that God responds to the plans of disbelievers by planning. Which is indicative of rubbishing the idea that everything is predetermined. Also, worth noting is that the appointed Angels do write down all our works which is counter-intuitive if it was already written down and we were only acting as in a consequence.

What determinism is not about is: the understanding that all thoughts and actions are preordained which then necessarily must dictate who will reside in hell and who in heaven in advance. The following verses sharply criticise this assertion without needing any aid from any of its proponents.

Quran 43:20-22 And they said, “If the Most Merciful (God) had willed, we would not have worshipped them (idols)”. They have of that no knowledge, instead they are but lying.

Or have We (God) given them a book before this to which they are adhering (their actions)?

Rather, they say, “Indeed, we found our fathers upon a way, and we are in their footsteps [rightly] guided”.

Clearly, there isn’t any record written or instructed as such to which people are made to mimic their thoughts and actions, no people can claim that: their rectitude is unwilled by God. But that clear guidelines of God’s commands are rehearsed before us for our compliance of them. God clarifies worshipping of Idols by disbelievers did not represent their adherence to any of His directives and that they had to amend their conduct in regards to God. So therefore, religious people need to shun non-conforming ideas and must stand up to take responsibility toward instilling right understanding.

Is human freewill free from bias?

God’s freewill is undetermined, we are short from fathoming it. Therefore, the knowledge which is received from Him can be tested for discrimination. Rather it exemplifies the qualities of being indiscriminate. As we find it in His creation. And in the guidance provided by Him.

Quran 91:7-8 By the Consciousness and the proportion and order given to it; and its enlightenment as to its wrongs and its rights. Truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupts it.

Quran 76:3 -We show him the way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will).

Viz. God created man’s nature in pure instincts which is very evident among innocent children. Who later begin to learn from our respective societies. So then follows our trials to determine who amongst us is best in conduct.

Quran 82:6-14 O Honourable Man, what has deceived you concerning your Lord the Generous?

Who created you, proportioned you, and imparted just bias?

In whatever form He willed has He assembled you.

No! But you deny the Recompense (final judgement).

And indeed, [appointed] over you are keepers, noble and recording.

They know whatever you do.

Indeed, the righteous will be in pleasure and assuredly, the wicked will be in Hell-fire.

Babes are free from any bias. As they grow they acquire a bias. Therefore, all that learning is called to account: first, before its own conscience. And then before the society and finally before God. The conscience of children gradually matures as they develop and grows. Very early into puberty teenagers demonstrate unwavering abilities to discern right and wrong behaviour. As adults people are prone to debate certain moral fortresses and they often push limits out of the moral boundary. Reasons for such behaviour are worth debating: such as urge to legalise adultery and promiscuity. As it stands well understood that pursuit of promiscuity hurts mental peace in ways that families are stoked in distress. Undesirable stresses and depression grips members of the society. Individuals are falsely led into it, later they stand disadvantaged. Thus, for law-makers to close their eyes on such illicit pursuits that trespass natural morals leaves the civil liberties of people stranded. But due to God being our creator and giver of life, He has legislated sanctity for individuals in any relationship. Thus, He promises accounting for all such violations: from good treatment to parents to culling of innocent life in infancy unless there is a valid reason for justified abortion. And to all forms of inter-personal trespassing.

Therefore, God urges us to be on guard all-day long. Nevertheless, we are reminded of His endless capacity to forgive. As such those who fight their bias of upbringing through learning, knowledge and humility: they will determine successful outcomes in both worlds.

How can prophecies be explained?

Prophecies are God’s futuristic plans to human activity. They are determined outcomes of the future which God is keen on causing. Which are engineered by God and communicated due to human stimulus of wanting to learn. Let me explain the point by presenting a couple of prophecies mentioned in the Quran.

During the nascent phase of Islam’s proclamation in Makkah: mighty empires of those times Rome and Persia tussled fiercely. In a battle near the neighbourhood to Arabs; Romans suffered defeat. Persians exerted control over Arabian territories of the Mesopotamian region. Amidst this Muslim narrative in the Quran was increasingly pro-Christian. The disbelievers in Makkah belittled Muslims and rejoiced at the Persian victory over Romans- Whom Islam regarded as the people of the Book.  Makkan disbelievers shared pagan religious identity with Persians. Therefore, were exultant as the God of Muslims per them had suffered defeat. Hence God’s decision to give victory to Romans was announced in the following way:

Quran 30:2-8 The Romans have been defeated.

In the nearest land. But they, after their defeat, will overcome in a few years to come.

To God belongs the command before and after. And on that day the believers will rejoice! In the victory of God. He gives victory to whom He wills, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.

[It is] the promise of God. God does not fail in His promise, but most of the people do not know.

They know what is apparent of the worldly life, but they, of the Hereafter, are unaware.

Do they not contemplate within themselves? God has not created the heavens and the earth and what is between them except in truth and for an estimated term. And indeed, many of the people, in [the matter of] the meeting with their Lord, are disbelievers.

Gaming is prohibited business in Islam except to proof Islam. God- Who remains the assurer of certainty eliminates any chance of loss; for probability stands eliminated. When upon hearing the prophecy from God: AbuBakar a prominent companion rushed into a bet with a boastful disbeliever Ubayy-bin-Khalaf. Upon Prophet’s clarification to him that God’s use of the word bidi-sineen in the verse puts the number between 3 and 9 years. AbuBakar negotiated and reset the terms of the bet. For 100 camels and up to 9 years of wait for the event to occur. Ubayy-bin-Khalaf was dead by then in the 2nd battle against Muslims. The guarantor in the bet paid it all when the prophecy came to pass. This was and still is a clear eye opener to those who were and are keen after a sign from God; but to disbelievers nothing graduates as evidence.

Second prophecy- Abraham, the father of the prophets set the precedent for faith in God alone. Per the narrative of the Quran those were the times when humanity was surrounded in whims and innovations to worship numerous demi-gods; as associate gods for mediation with Almighty God. Abraham’s father was a potter himself casting gods: curious Abraham graduated reasoning beyond his father’s intellect. Naturally he stood was abandoned by his father with a warning. That if he persisted in criticising gods of the temple; he be stoned to death. Having proven his mettle to stand the test of time favouring truth, Abraham receipted God’s inspiration. And soon was awarded with nobility and a mission. Ageing Abraham had persevered patiently and God had answered his prayers blessing him to father Ishmael and Isaac and promised to make of his progeny great nations for their longing to please God.

Quran 29:27 And We gave to Him Isaac and Jacob and placed in his descendants prophethood and scripture. And We gave him his reward in this world, and indeed, he is in the Hereafter among the righteous.

This became the basis for the prophecies of future Prophethood in the line of Abraham. A careful study of the Bible informs you know that the prophecy of a future Prophet is descriptive of the subtle knowledge surrounding the personality. For example, Christians interpret all the prophecies mentioned in old testament and in psalms in favour of Christ. And the prophecies in new testament in favour of the holy spirit. Even though the use of the word Prophet is emphasised by Christ himself: in a confrontation explaining how to identify the false Prophets? The Muslim view however argues that some prophecies of the old testament explain the advent of Prophet Muhammad in clear terms. And all the prophecies of the new testament undoubtedly refer to advent of Prophet Muhammad.

Quran 61:6 And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, “O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of God to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad.” But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, “This is obvious magic.”

The obvious question that may arise is- If God would simply name the personalities instead of describing characteristic identity it would make a better sense to people to identify. This is simply not sufficient for reasons discussed below: Firstly, the language. People have traditionally named their children in their respective syllables therefore they carry the tendencies to alter names mentioned in the prophecies. For instance, Jesus’s name isn’t Jesus which is a latinised version of the classical Yesua in Hebrew. However, Isa is used in Quranic Arabic, different from its Syriaic usage Yeshu. Jesus himself was speaking Aramaic which is indicative of how different his name would have been uttered by his natives. In the verse quoted above Jesus is said to have received the words of what was a prophecy of a future Prophet named Ahmad. Ahmad is Arabic. However, it is not clear if God had communicated an Arabic form of the word to Jesus as God worded him in the Quran to Prophet Muhammad. In Aramaic, it could have been slightly different but the chances are rich that it wasn’t different. Since Ishmael’s Arabic evolution God had a plan to make his progeny great like that of Isaac’s in the promise to Abraham. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad’s name would be sighted as is in Arabic in the scriptures of nations foreign to Arabs for the exact purposes of easing identification. This is exactly the findings of what is discovered in the songs of Solomon 5:16 in the old testament translated as highly esteemed or the greatly beloved or altogether lovely. Watch a video on Youtube titled “Muhammad In the Bible READ by the Jewish Rabais” for more details.

Muhammad himself wasn’t the first to have this name in the Arab land. Although it was uncommon name amongst the Arabs of that time. It only became popular among the Muslims ever since. As a baby Muhammad was named a different name until his mother and his grandfather talked of a dream then they renamed him as Muhammad. Which means the praised one. Who then invited the chiefs of his noble tribe: Qhuraysh for a ceremony to celebrate his birth. Ahmad as sighted in the verse means the one who praises God much. Having he come to them praising none other than God. The verse says when he came to them with clear evidence i.e. The Arabic Quran. The Arabs exclaimed as though it was obvious magic.

God calls him in the Quran by his given name Muhammad in 4 different occasions and in one verse as Ahmad. As his mission progressed in Arabia towards its closure God praised him and further conferred blessings unto him in the tongues of Angels and numerous believing men.

Quran 68:4 And indeed, you (O Muhammad) are of a great moral character.

Quran 33:56 Indeed, God and His Angels confer blessing upon the Prophet. O you who have believed, send your blessings upon him and render your conscious submissions.

Since, his striving in the path of God for the benefit of mankind, he has only been praised and honoured by foes and friends alike. And mostly by men of faith. It can easily be realised if you visit Makkah. Wherein at any given instance many lips testify- that none has the right to be worshipped expect God and Muhammad is his messenger.

The scriptures of the greater-Indian origin such as Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas. Are inherited in the line of Prophet Noah in Arabic Nuh. Who is identified as Manu in Sanskrit. And his scripture is known as Manu-smriti. These Indian scriptures surprisingly contains prophecies alluding to final-times of God’s communication to man. The descendants who populated the Indus during the times of Abrahamic revolution in Mesopotamia did collect transcripts of inspiration to Abraham through sages who were after such knowledge in their respective lines. The evidence for these claims are within the Indian scriptures. Among Puranas the prominently known Bhavishya-Purana known as the futuristic document entails the advent of Prophet Muhammad in significant detail. The scriptures in totality do present a case of foreknowledge which God is likely to have deciphered in a couple of phases. Firstly, since Noah generations prior to Abraham were warned of the finality and therefore God had a plan for his final communication with human race viz. the knowledge surrounding this situation was detailed and communicated through smriti (knowledge by revelations) that went on to become parts in Vedas. Noah’s own scripture which is a book of law stands heavily manipulated today. You can avail a copy of what is available and learn how strikingly similar are the foundations found in the Bible and Quran with respect to Manu smriti.

Quran 42:13 He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus – to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate others with God is that to which you invite them. God chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever is penitent returning.

The work of Pundit Vaid Parkash, who is a Brahman Hindu and a well-known Sanskrit scholar and researcher is worth a glance. The author of this important research work “Kalki Autar” i.e. “Guide and Prophet of whole universe” comes of a Bengali race and holds an important portfolio at Ilahabad University. Who argues that even the names of Prophet Muhammad’s parents are found in the Vedas in syllables of Sanskrit. Which perhaps explains how God is competent to match exquisite details of the future. Which is very different to God dictating thoughts and actions that become someone’s fate.

Secondly, since Abraham ingenuity came to the fore. He excelled without a precedent in identifying Almighty God for exclusive worship. Without a teacher having to educate him. Unlike previously wherein constant guidance of one God was a known matter. In those very times despite scriptures were chanted in the nether world: God wan’t adored but associated. Several demi-gods were invoked with Almighty God. In those times of a blasphemous world: in Mesopotamia Abraham earned the title AlKhaleel a near friend of God. Thus, was given glad tidings and favours from God. Therefore prophecies favouring the lineage of Abraham were collected by the sages from across nations. Which in Indus civilisation were absorbed as Shruti. In Sanskrit it means knowledge gathered by hearing. As the Chinese whisper goes information unless standardised is subject to alterations. For this reason information from the Indian subcontinent found in Puranas as Shruti does not in its entirety represent authenticity and must be considered carefully to extract facts from fiction.

As we have seen thus far prophecies are plans of God which He is keen on causing under ample circumstances of human activity. Which explains the knowledge of God and His immensity of wisdom to realise things in human sphere in most subtle ways wherein injustice to humans of any sort is removed far and bay. Prophecies aren’t determinism of the sort that humans are predestined to certain actions rather in the wake of human stimulus; God determines and discloses His own plan for what must necessarily unfold.

Case study- On decree of God

Quran 13:11 Verily never will God change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own consciousness).

In this case study let us try to understand how God conducts His intended determinism. The persecution, which lasted for 13 years by the polytheists of Makkah forced Prophet Muhammad and his companions into exile. And since all their properties and left overs in Makkah were squandered as booty.

Into the first year of Muslim migration natives of Madinah (a city N of Makkah then Yathrib) embraced the new faith. Increasing their numbers and supporting the fewer Muslim immigrants. With strengths on their side now; at learning of a caravan returning to Makkah from Syria they decided to revenge for their belongings wrongly traded and squandered.

Quran 8:41 … if you have believed in God and in that which We sent down to Our servant on the day of criterion (battle of Badar, first Islamic battle) – the day when the two armies met. And God, over all things, is competent.

Upon the desert carriers bringing news all parties in conflict were alarmed. The news that Muslims aiming to set out to intercept the returning caravans to Makkah, prompted the pilot of the caravan to summon for aid. Viz. an armed cavalry began their march to quell Muslims as the opportunity seemed just right for them. As the farther side was a good distance march from Madinah the caravan returning from Syria was manoeuvred greatly on its way to Makkah to outpace Muslim approach.

The sea side makes a plain walkway for the caravan heading south from Syria and Muslims set out from Madinah towards it thorough the vales which God recounts in the below verse that it was a meeting due to miss.  So, 314 in number lightly armed Muslim ranks came out on an expedition to intercept the caravan.

Quran 8:42 [Remember] when you were on the near side of the earth, and they were on the farther side, the caravan in lower [in position] than you. If you had made an appointment [to meet], you would have missed the appointment. But [it was] so that God might accomplish a matter already destined -that those who perished [through disbelief] would perish upon evidence and those who lived [in faith] would live upon evidence; and indeed, God is Hearing and Knowing.

And while they continued towards them hoping to cease the caravan; God inspired His Prophet and promised victory for believers for either of the takes. Revelation depicting this situation descended later, as cited below.

Quran 8:7-9 [Remember, O believers], when God promised you one of the two groups – that it would be yours – and you wished that the unarmed one would be yours. But God intended to establish the truth by His words and to eliminate the disbelievers.

That He should establish the truth and abolish falsehood, even if the criminals disliked it.

Muslims naturally preferred to take the unarmed caravan. But, the caravan was carefully piloted to safety. Dispatching the carriers to inform their support cavalry from Makkah to cease their advancements. But, the chiefs were now insanely adamant to finish off the Muslims: as the opportunity seemed so likely for them that even Muslims had clearly drifted away from their dwellings.

As the scene unfolded before Muslims, they gasped sighs having missed the caravan. As they were now under the verse acting in circumstantial-determinism to face the swarm of the Makkan cavalry. Expectantly, groups of Muslims expressed concerns that they are lightly armed. As they set out to face the caravan therefore now that they will be outnumbered before the army of the Makkans: who must be tightly armed for this conflict.

There were two possibilities at this intersection either to retrieve which wasn’t as dearly sought a way by the Muslims; despite their inadequacies mainly due to firm faith in God’s revelation. By then in the night the Prophet was given a envision in which he was shown the enemy numbers as considerable: remarking if he was shown many of their numbers; that it would have disrupted the march further.

Quran 8:43 Remember in your dream God showed them to you as few; if He had shown them to you as many, you would surely have been discouraged, and you surely would have disputed in (your) decision. But God saved (you) for He know well the (secrets) of (all) hearts.

Thus, Muslims decided to seek out the enemy and they marched towards the enemy route. In following days they first arrived at the wells of Badar; strategically positioning themselves at the wells of Badar awaiting the Makkans.

The Prophet and the believers fell-down beseeching for help from their Lord. God answered their prayers and confirmed aid by sending armed Angels. Therefore, God commanded Angles to slaughter the disbelievers who had previously persecuted and killed many weaker sections of the Muslims; merely for their belief in one God.

Quran 8:9 [Remember] when you asked help of your Lord, and He answered you, “Indeed, I will reinforce you with a thousand from the angels, following one another”.

As the armies faced each other; a metaphysical interruption occurred. In which the dream of the Prophet was realised by the Muslims: to see the enemy ranks as considerable. While they numbered 3 times more with heavy cavalry and armoury. And the enemy saw Muslims few in numbers. Such that- God may aid faith over falsehood and reward those who stood the test of time demonstrating courage and truth over oppression and falsehood.

Quran 8:44 And [remember] when He showed them to you, when you met (face on), as few in your eyes, and He made you [appear] as few in their eyes so that God might accomplish a matter already destined. And to God are [all] matters returned.

This resulted in clear victory for Muslims. Bringing a premium first satisfaction to their trials and to see the promises of God fulfil. Also, that they saw the promise of God made to His Prophet in days before the event being fulfilled miraculously. This event proclaimed clear evidence to the remains of the disbelievers that this faith was from God: who accomplishes what he determines.


In this appointed-determinism, upon the successful preaching of the message. God made it a clear evidence in their native language for Makkans. After having answered their arguments uniquely to disprove this message: if they thought it was not from God. God brought the doom upon them.

In this case study God intercepted twice: firstly, binding a circumstantial-determinism for Muslims to tackle either a caravan or the cavalry. And Secondly, by warding off discouragement via a dream of them as considerable in number. And perhaps only then to substitute the missing numbers through sending armed Angles to swell forces.

Remarking, that if God were not to show them considerable in a dream and then plainly overboard at the wells of Badar by a metaphysical event; Muslims would have been thoroughly discouraged to mount a battle. Which shows that exertion was clearly demanded from Muslims. As evidence of their faith in God. For God to supply support and aid them. This clearly explains the compatibility of freewill to perform and exert to the best of our ability and that circumstantial-determinism is not curbing freewill. But the final command rests with God to cause into effect what He so wills. All of which God has explained very clearly via His laws of determinism.

How determinism won’t spare abrupt choices made by freewill

In the following year Muslims, had swelled their numbers due to large additions of new entries upon their victory sighted at Badar. Which meant that their security was increasingly promised in this new faith. But the Makkans had retreated in vicious disgust. With most of their tribal leaders now dead. Vowing retaliation in near future, they drummed up another battle in the following year to avenge their dead. Viz. they arrived even more powerfully with 3000 men. Heavy in cavalry and armoury striking hoofs at the doors of Madinah. The Prophet consulted the Muslims and decided to face the enemy in the outskirts of Madinah were stood the mount of Uhud. Hence the name “the battle of Uhud”.

Muslims numbered 700 in the battle field. After a participating tribal leader pulled out and retreated with 300 of his men announcing there would be no battle and it was vain to camp in the outskirts. As usual Prophet Muhammad with the believers fell beseeching for God’s help. God promised yet another batch of Angels to aid the Muslims.

Quran 3:121-129 Remember that morning you (O Muhammad) did leave your household [early] to post the faithful at their stations for battle and God hears and knows all things. Remember two of your parties meditated cowardice, but God was their protector and in God should the faithful [ever] put their trust.

God had helped you at Badar when you were a contemptible little force. Then fear God thus you may show your gratitude.

Remember you said to the faithful: Is it not enough for you that God should help you with three thousand angels [specially] sent down? Yea, if you remain firm and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught. God made it but a message of hope for you, and an assurance to your hearts: [in any case] there is no help except from God. The Exalted, the Wise.

That He might cut off a fringe of the Unbelievers or expose them to infamy, and they should then be turned back, frustrated of their purpose.

Not for you, [but for God], is the decision: Whether He turn in mercy to them, or punish them; for they are indeed wrong-doers. To God belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth. He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases; but God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Part of the battle strategy Prophet Muhammad appointed approximately 50 archers up the mount with clear instructions not to abandon their positions. Even if they saw their mates apparently being slaughtered in the field at the hands of the enemy. Which would ensure protection from the rear.  As the battle commenced by God’s help the disbelievers were severely killed. Who then commenced retreating. Seeing this the archers left their positions for collecting the plunder. Which triggered the revelation of chapter 8 named “Spoils of War” in the Quran.

At this disobedience of the command of the Prophet a cavalry which laid in wait raced to the battle field undoing the rear of the Muslims. Inflicting a tremendous defeat which then forced Muslims to retreat to safety on the slopes of the mount Uhud. The Makkans with early losses on their side now were too exhausted to pursue their advantage to annihilate Muslims. So they claimed their day for the day of Badar and left to Makkah.

After this, God consoled the Muslim community that He will soon terrify the enemy for their disbelief. And that if you disobey the Prophet even after guidance to that effect did come to you. It would amount to the disobedience of God in which scenario God would similarly withdraw His promises made to you. Therefore, His promise to award you victory could not take effect; since you broke the Prophet’s command to remain stationed, as you hurried to collect the spoils of war.

Quran 3:151-152 Soon shall We (God) cast terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers, for that they joined false deities with God, for which He had sent no authority, their abode will be the Fire: And evil is the home for the wrong-doers!

God did indeed fulfil His promise to you when you with His permission were about to annihilate your enemy until you flinched and fell to disputing about the order and disobeyed it after He brought you in sight [of the booty] which you covet. Among you are some that hanker after this world and some that desire the Hereafter. Then did He divert you from your foes in order to test you but He forgave you: For God is full of grace to those who believe.

If all events were predetermined: then, due to God promising support prior to the occurrence of battle; it must be realising victory, regardless of those archers’ disobedience. As the apparent victory seemed clear to the archer’s which may have compelled them to leave their positions to collect plunder about when the disbelievers first retreated. But instead stage-determinism is a law and not a line by line write-up of our actions. Which is enacted as a response for human thought and activity.

Quran 3:153 Behold! you were climbing up the high ground, without even casting a side glance at any one, and the Messenger (Muhammad) in your rear was calling you back. There did God give you one distress after another by way of requital, to teach you not to grieve for [the booty] that had escaped you and for [the ill] that had befallen you. For God is well aware of all that you do.

The first recipients of penalties in the law of determinism before God are those who are nearly the proximate receivers of His messages and warnings. Therefore, the way for them is to be diligent in observing the instructions of God and the messenger. We can see although the battle had begun taking its toll on the army of disbelievers. Waywardness by the Muslim ranks and archers for plunder prompted the appointed-determinism to inverse a stage correction. Thereafter important lessons were learnt by the young Muslim community as to how God deals through His laws of determinism and what it exactly means to obey the Prophet, lest which would amount to the disobedience of God.

Checking the invented creed of Roman church

Lets us apply determinism to authenticate the creed promoted by Roman Church for our salvation. In evaluating the popularly known belief that Jesus has died on the cross to pay for our sins. The creed promoted by Roman Church- Whether it was influenced by other forces of that time? Jesus Christ himself was born a Jew via a miraculous virgin-birth. He is found to have unequivocally spoken the first commandment emphatically. That hear “O Israel, your God my Lord is one Lord”. If we were to ascertain the creed made popular by the Romans: if it was divine then it must stand the test of determinism.

If the faith of a Christian believer must necessarily affirm: that Christ has died on the cross to pay for his sins. Which can only guarantee him salvation. Such that one becomes free from the sins in the aspect of realising grace; then determinism must pay for such a belief. What entails from such an assertion is, sins from those believers must have necessarily ceased. Because of determinism of grace acting to free sinners of their sins. But, evidential findings of sins from such believers however question the framed creed to live in grace? Which, nonetheless finds its eventual substitution in the concept of final judgement of the Abrahamic God. Who remains the sole forgiver: that which is due perhaps, on the day of Judgement.

Applying the law of determinism to the teachings of Roman church. One will perhaps find incompatible results as realised above. Also, one can conveniently arrive at true findings to ascertain the wrongs that went on to form the altered creed which merely asserts grace for verbal subscription. That God’s ultimate purpose of sending His only begotten Son to the world: was to be the cause of forgiveness for entire humanity. Which in that case needed to resolve freedom to refusal of His intended purpose; at the time of bringing it into possibility. This inference of freedom to refuse faith suspends determinism of forgiveness, intended by God via His Son dying on the cross. Thus, the confusion and conjecture that surrounds fellow Christians defending this creed.

A drift in the fundamentals of creed from the clear teachings of Jesus Christ came about mainly due to: first, because of Romans polytheistic heritage that greatly inhibited new understanding of Christ’s teachings. Second, owing to the later inventions & compromises that were inevitable via for accommodation of dominant culture and populace before the state transition was effected to embrace new faith.

Almighty God has clarified in Quran that Christ the son of Mary is not God himself. Worshipping Jesus would amount to blasphemy. In-fact all Prophets are men and God is not human. Neither has God beget a Son. God reigns high above any such an assertion. By His being ArRahman, the most Gracious: able to forgive all. If He deemed so fitting; He could do that at His will and If He deemed to punish it rests at His will. But, that He has enacted a law that will traverse its course and the end will soon be determined.

Can God’s decree be undone

Quran 35:11 … And no aged [person] gains increased life nor does his lifespan lessens but that it is in a register. Indeed, that for God is easy.

Quran 56:60 We (God) have decreed Death amongst you, and We (God) are not to be frustrated.

Quran 6:134 All that has been promised unto you will come to pass: nor can you frustrate it [in the least bit].

Quran 29:22 Not on earth nor in heaven will you be able [to flee] to frustrate [God’s Plan], nor have you, besides God, any protector or helper.

Quran 11:104 And We do not delay it (final doom) except for a limited term.

As we have seen in the case study such final appointed-determinism cannot be averted. Seeking God’s forgiveness is the only way to inherit Paradise. Having said, as heedless as we are God has forewarned of a day when all people would have shunned belief. And God would bring it into effect upon the world. Essentially, death and the final doom are appointed-determinisms differed in stages. Wherein people’s responses to belief, repentance and good conduct have salient effects. As such people are rendered helpless to defeat or frustrate the plan of God to avoid death and final doom by any means possible.

Quran 4:115 If anyone contends with the Messenger even after Guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that of becoming men of Faith, We (God) shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell, what an evil refuge.

I is very clear that there isn’t anything in the heavens or the earth to assert freewill incompatibility with circumstantial determinism as the case now stands thoroughly argued that freewill is compatible with deterministic nature of God’s law.


Quran 42:16 And those who argue concerning God after He has been responded to- their argument is invalid with their Lord, and upon them is [His] wrath, and for them is a severe punishment.

The understanding of predeterminism that fate and fortune are fixed. And human actions cannot breakaway from the endlessly set antecedent causes. With the understanding that all outcomes are preordained has been refuted thoroughly. By demonstrating the Quranic narrative on realism. It has also been established that Quran does not support the idea of such an inference. Rather, it emphatically posits a scientific understanding of freewill’s interaction with determinism. Thus, whimsical narratives on freewill as incompatible lacks substantiation. Therefore, any attempts to discredit plausibility of God and His Judgement are found invalid.


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